processing, as a thinking skill, involves the brain receiving
information (by seeing it, hearing it, touching it, smelling
it ... or through a combination of the four senses) from the
environment and providing means for acessing (i.e., storing
and retrieving) that information for future use. Teachers who
have the purpose of teaching for higher-level/skillful thinking
need to provide opportunities for their students to learn and
practice appropriate information processing skills. If the teacher
uses Bloom's (1956) cognitive taxonomy as their guide for higher-level
thinking, knowledge and comprehension (and perhaps application)
focus at the skill of information processing. From Gagne's (date)
eight conditions of learning, signal learning, stimulus-response
learning, chaining, and verbal association (and perhaps discrimination
learning) focus at the skill of information processing.
excellent way to provide opportunities for practicing information
processing skills in the classroom comes from the first four
of Marzano, et al.'s (1988) core thinking skills. These include
focusing skills, information gathering skills, remembering skills,
and organizing skills.
skills are skills that help
an individual attend to selected bits and pieces of information.
Focusing skills involve (1) defining the problem (clarifying
the situation) and (2) setting goals (establishing direction
skills are skills that enable
an individual to bring to consciousness the substance or content
to be used for cognitive processing. Information-gathering skills
involve (1) observing (obtaining/collecting new information
from the environment) and (2) formulating questions (clarifying
issues and meaning through inquiry).
skills are activities or strategies
that are used to store information in long-term memory and to
retrieve information from long-term memory. Remembering skills
involve (1) encoding (linking bits of information for long term
storage) and (2) recalling. Encoding skills include rehearsal
(repeating associations over and over to establish links), and
mnemonics. Recalling strategies are generall unplanned and unsystematic.
The can occur at any point (consciously or unconsciously) in
the learning process. Recall strategies include activating prior
knowledge and retrieval of prior knowledge.
skills are skills necessary
to arrange information so it can be understood or presented
more effectively. Organizing skills include (1) comparing (identifying
similarities and differences), (2) classifying -- or categorizing
(grouping items into categories based on similar attributes),(3)
ordering (sequencing in some logical manner), and representing
(changing the form of information to show how critical elements
are related. These changes could be visual, verbal, or symbolic).
to Bloom (1956) , Gagne (date), and Marzano, et al. (1988) can
be found in the
of this web site or on the reference list in the Resources